Thursday, August 7, 2014

What is (Computer) Networking?

Question: What is (Computer) Networking?

Answer:
In the world of computers, networking is the practice of linking two or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data. Networks are built with a mix of computer hardware and computer software.

Area Networks

Networks can be categorized in several different ways. One approach defines the type of network according to the geographic area it spans. Local area networks (LANs) , for example, typically span a single home, school, or small office building, whereas wide area networks (WANs) , reach across cities, states, or even across the world. The Internet is the world's largest public WAN.

→ More - Introduction to Area Networks

Network Design

Computer networks also differ in their design. The two basic forms of network design are called client/server and peer-to-peer . Client-server networks feature centralized server computers that store email, Web pages, files and or applications. On a peer-to-peer network, conversely, all computers tend to support the same functions. Client-server networks are much more common in business and peer-to-peer networks much more common in homes.
network topology represents its layout or structure from the point of view of data flow. In so-called bus networks, for example, all of the computers share and communicate across one common conduit, whereas in a star network, all data flows through one centralized device. Common types of network topologies include bus, star, ring networks and mesh networks

Network Protocols

Communication languages used by computer devices are called network protocol. Yet another way to classify computer networks is by the set of protocols they support. Networks often implement multiple protocols with each supporting specific applications. Popular protocols include TCP/IP, the most common protocol found on the Internet and in home networks.

→ See also - About Network Protocols

Home Networking

While other types of networks are built and maintained by engineers, home networks belong to ordinary homeowners, people often with little or no technical background. Various manufacturers produce broadband router hardware designed to simplify home network setup. Home broadband routers allow devices in different rooms to efficiently share a
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broadband Internet connection, enable people to more easily share their files and printers within the network, and help with overall network security.
Home networks have increased in capability with each generation of new technology. Years ago, people commonly set up their home network just to connect a few PCs, share some documents and perhaps a printer. Now its common for households to also network game consoles, digital video recorders, and smartphones for streaming sound and video. Home automation systems have also existed for many years, but these too have grown in popularity more recently with practical systems for controlling lights, digital thermostats and appliances.
→ See also - About Home Networking 

Networking and the Internet

The popularity of computer networks sharply increased with the creation of the World Wide Web (WWW) in the 1990s. Public Web sites, peer to peer (P2P) file sharing systems, and various other services run on Internet servers across the world.

→ See also - About Internet Access and Services

Wired vs. Wireless Networking

Many of the same network protocols, like TCP/IP, work in both wired and wireless networks. Networks with Ethernet cables predominated in businesses, schools, and homes for several decades. More recently, however, wireless alternatives have emerged as the premier technology for building new computer networks, in part to support smartphones and the other new kinds of wireless gadgets that have triggered the rise of mobile networking.

Next > What is Wireless Networking?

Monday, January 27, 2014

HOW MICROPROCESSOR WORK

The computer you are using to read this page uses a microprocessor to do its work. The microprocessor is the heart of any normal computer, whether it is a desktop machine, a server or a laptop. The microprocessor you are using might be a Pentium, a K6, a PowerPC, a Sparc or any of the many other brands and types of microprocessors, but they all do approximately the same thing in approximately the same way.
A microprocessor -- also known as a CPU or central processing unit -- is a complete computation engine that is fabricated on a single chip. The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004, introduced in 1971. The 4004 was not very powerful -- all it could do was add and subtract, and it could only do that 4 bits at a time. But it was amazing that everything was on one chip. Prior to the 4004, engineers built computers either from collections of chips or from discrete components (transistors wired one at a time). The 4004 powered one of the first portable electronic calculators.
If you have ever wondered what the microprocessor in your computer is doing, or if you have ever wondered about the differences between types of microprocessors, then read on. In this article, you will learn how fairly simple digital logic techniques allow a computer to do its job, whether its playing a game or spell checking a document!

HOW MICROPROCESSOR WORK

The computer you are using to read this page uses a microprocessor to do its work. The microprocessor is the heart of any normal computer, whether it is a desktop machine, a server or a laptop. The microprocessor you are using might be a Pentium, a K6, a PowerPC, a Sparc or any of the many other brands and types of microprocessors, but they all do approximately the same thing in approximately the same way.
      A microprocessor -- also known as a CPU or central processing unit -- is a complete computation engine that is fabricated on a single chip. The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004, introduced in 1971. The 4004 was not very powerful -- all it could do was add and subtract, and it could only do that 4 bits at a time. But it was amazing that everything was on one chip. Prior to the 4004, engineers built computers either from collections of chips or from discrete components (transistors wired one at a time). The 4004 powered one of the first portable electronic calculators.
If you have ever wondered what the microprocessor in your computer is doing, or if you have ever wondered about the differences between types of microprocessors, then read on. In this article, you will learn how fairly simple digital logic techniques allow a computer to do its job, whether its playing a game or spell checking a document!

Thursday, October 10, 2013

CONVERSION FROM INFIX TO POST FIX EXPRESSION

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#define MAX 10
#define EMPTY -1

 struct stack                                          
                                                                     
{                                                                  
char data[MAX];
int top;
};

int isempty(struct stack *s)
{
return (s->top == EMPTY)
}
void emptystack(struct stack* s)
{
s->top=EMPTY;
}
void push(struct stack* s,int item)
{
if(s->top == (MAX-1))
{
printf("\nSTACK FULL");
}
else
{
++s->top;
s->data[s->top]=item;
}
}

char pop(struct stack* s)
{
char ret=(char)EMPTY;
if(!isempty(s))
{
ret= s->data[s->top];
s->top;
}
return ret;
}

void display(struct stack s)
{
while(stop != EMPTY)
{
printf("\n%d",s->data[s->top]);
s->top;
}
}

int isoperator(char e)
{
if(e == '+' || e == '-' || e == '*' || e == '/' )
return 1;
else
return 0;
}


int priority(char e)
{
int pri = 0;

if(e == '*' || e == '/' )
pri = 2;
else
{
if(e == '+' || e == '-')
pri = 1;
}
return pri;
}

void infix2postfix(char* infix, char * postfix, int insertspace)
{
char *i,*p;
struct stack X;
char n1;
emptystack(&X);
i = &infix[0];
p = &postfix[0];

while(*i)
{
while(*i == ' ' || *i == '\t')
{
i++;
}

if( isdigit(*i) || isalpha(*i) )
{
while( isdigit(*i) || isalpha(*i))
{
*p = *i; ///////if it's operand we compare the postfix and infiix///
p++;  //////increment postfix to the next character in postfix expr///
i++; //////increment infix to the next character in infix expr///
}
}

if( *i == '(' )
{
push(&X,*i);
i++;  ///// we incremenent inix to the next character/////
}

if( *i == ')')
{
n1 = pop(&X);
while( n1 != '(' )
{
*p = n1;
p++;
n1 = pop(&X);
}
i++;
}
if( isoperator(*i) )
{
if(isempty(&X))
push(&X,*i);
else
{
n1 = pop(&X);
while(priority(n1) >= priority(*i))
{
*p = n1;
p++;
n1 = pop(&X);
}
push(&X,n1);
push(&X,*i);
}
i++;
}
}
while(!isempty(&X))
{
n1 = pop(&X);
*p = n1;
p++;
}
}
int main()
{
char in[50] = { 0 },post[50] = { 0 };
printf("Enter Infix Expression : ");
infix2postfix(&in[0],&post[0],1);
printf("Postfix Expression is : %s\n",&post[0]);
return 0;
}

Sunday, October 6, 2013

DC GENERATOR

An electrical Generator is a machine which converts mechanical energy (or power) into
electrical energy (or power). Principle : It is based on the principle of production of
dynamically (or motionally) induced e.m.f
(Electromotive Force). Whenever a conductor cuts
magnetic flux, dynamically induced e.m.f. is
produced in it according to Faraday's Laws of Electromagnetic Induction. This e.m.f. causes a current to flow if the conductor circuit is closed. Hence, the basic essential parts of an electric
generator are : A magnetic field and A conductor or conductors which can so move as to cut the flux.

DC GENERATOR

An electrical Generator is a machine which converts mechanical energy (or power) into
electrical energy (or power). Principle : It is based on the principle of production of
dynamically (or motionally) induced e.m.f
(Electromotive Force). Whenever a conductor cuts
magnetic flux, dynamically induced e.m.f. is
produced in it according to Faraday's Laws of Electromagnetic Induction. This e.m.f. causes a current to flow if the conductor circuit is closed. Hence, the basic essential parts of an electric
generator are : A magnetic field and A conductor or conductors which can so move as to cut the flux.

Tuesday, October 1, 2013

IDENTITY FORM

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Data;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Windows.Forms;

namespace identity_form
{
    public partial class Form1 : Form
    {
        public Form1()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
        }

        private void button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            String fname = textBox1.Text;
            String mName = textBox2.Text;
            String lName = textBox3.Text;
            DateTime dob = dateTimePicker1.Value;
            String nationality = comboBox1.SelectedItem.ToString();
            String gender = "";
            if (radioButton1.Checked == true)
                gender = "Male";
            else if (radioButton2.Checked == true)
                gender = "Female";
            String Email = textBox4.Text;

            MessageBox.Show("first name: "+fname+"\nmiddle name: "+mName+"\nlName: " +lName+"\ndob :"+dob+"\nnationality : " +nationality+ "\ngender :" +gender+ "\nEmail :"+Email);


        }
    }
}